The decision of the ICSID tribunal upholding the revocation of mining license to Cortec Mining Kenya (CMK) has exposed how Natural Resources in Kenya and Africa are being auctioned to the highest bidder and rampant corruption in the mining industry. It has also shown the need to shed some light on the principle of sovereignty over natural resources.
This case involved a Canadian firm, CMK Kenya whose license was revoked by the Ministry of Mining. The cancellation was a result of the irregular manner in which the license was obtained. It is alleged that the slain businessman Mr. Jacob Juma offered to help the company ‘navigate the political system’ and in return be allowed to buy shares in Pacific Wildcat Resources Corp which owned 100% of Cortex UK, CMK and Sterling. After this, the parties were involved in meetings with several government officials and the license was granted and soon revoked.
The decision of the ICSID tribunal is a win for Kenya and Africa as a whole. The minerals were worth Kshs. 6.24 trillion (USD 62.4 billion). Indeed, Africa is endowed with natural resources; from oil in Angola and Nigeria to Coltan and Copper in Congo. It is a hotbed of resources. Notwithstanding the vast deposits, most of its citizens are poor, existence of armed conflicts and underdevelopment. This then begs the question, since states have sovereignty (or control) over natural resources, why are they poor?
However, before we get there it is important to understand the principle of Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources.
This principle according to Blanco & Razzaque postulates that a state has the right to use, posses, manage and enjoy the profits arising out of the exploitation of natural resources subject to the duty imposed by international law. Therefore, every state has the right to exploit these minerals and enjoy the profits that emanate from exploitation of natural resources. The United Nations General Assembly noted with affirmation that developing countries do need to control natural resources to ensure citizens benefit from the exploitation of resources as they constitute the basis for economic development.
However, with every right, there is a corresponding duty on the states. That means if the state has the right to exploit these natural resources, it has the obligation to ensure that the populous enjoy the benefits that arise from the exploitation of these minerals. Such benefits include better health care, access to water, improved infrastructure among others. However, looking at most of the African Countries, states have relinquished their right to control natural resources to foreigners and autocrats and the corresponding duty to ensure that citizens benefit has not been actualized.
With every right, there is a corresponding duty on states.
Tom Burgis, in his book, the Looting Machine, has exposed how natural resources are being used to funnel conflicts, create rich despots and embezzling through shell companies. He uses the examples of Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Niger among others to demonstrate this. In Angola for instance, Sanangol has misappropriated money through fraud and shady deals. In one example where an American company discovered vast deposits of oil, it had to partner with a local company as per the requirements of the law. However, the local company was owned by the elite. The revenue earned from oil mining does not reach the citizens, and if it does, through the projects developed, they are too expensive for the locals. Recently CNN ran a feature about Kilamba in Angola where the Chinese had built apartments, schools and roads that were disserted due to the high costs. Entry level apartments cost USD $ 120,000 and yet citizens are living below two dollars a month. In Congo also, a shadow state created by Augustine Katumba (now deceased), Kabila and Dan Gertler have swindled away billions in revenues from the mineral rich country. This is done through a complex web of shell companies. For example, the state’s rights to a mine are transferred to a shell company affiliated with Mr. Gertler at a shady price, who then sells the rights to the mine to some company listed in the London Stock exchange at an inflated price. This leaves the people of Congo with nothing to benefit from these resources. This has resulted in conflicts in the Eastern Congo with even calls for secession by some factions within the country.
From the above experiences, it is imminent that vast natural resource deposits do not imply wealth. Kenya has recently discovered minerals in its territory. From Oil in Turkana to Titanium in Kwale County. This can mean immense wealth, employment, foreign exchange and an increase in the gross domestic product. Nevertheless, if Kenya does not exercise the sovereignty it has over natural resources in Kenya appropriately, it can plunge into conflicts.
Vast natural resource deposits do not imply wealth
From the ICSID victory, Kenya should ensure that there is transparency in all deals. It should ensure compliance with all laws in granting licenses to foreign companies. In addition, it should ensure that there is proper and well-informed public participation before granting mining concessions. It should also ensure that proper Environmental Impact Assessment is conducted before any mining operation can take place. Kenya should also promote diversification of the economy. This will ensure that even if oil prices in the market plunge, the economy won’t be affected. Moreover, corruption should be dealt with entirely. Those caught up in this arrangement should be prosecuted so as to serve as a deterrence to anyone who even imagines to aid corruption.
The voracious hunger for mineral dollars should not canopy all and sundry to the possible effects of shady exploitation.
Kenya has the right to exploit the natural resources and it ought to exercise its correspondent duty aptly. If exercised appropriately, it stands to benefit a whole heap. The fact that the economy was flourishing before their discovery means that Kenya shall benefit a great deal if the minerals are exploited well. The voracious hunger for mineral dollars should not canopy all and sundry to the possible effects of shady exploitation.